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Colorectal Cancer

Where is the Colon and Rectum?

The colon and rectum together form the large intestine. It is the last part of the digestive system. It begins where the small intestine ends at the right lower corner of the abdomen. It travels upwards towards the liver at the right upper quadrant, then turns and goes across the abdomen to the left upper quadrant. From there, it turns downwards and travels to the left lower part of the abdomen.

It then travels towards the centre of the pelvis and goes straight down and ends at the anus. The rectum forms the last 15cm of the large intestines and lies within the pelvis. It is so named because it is relatively straight.

Colon and Rectal Surgery
Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in Singapore, yet one of the most preventable and treatable cancers in the early stages.
We provide risk assessments, screenings and treatments for all patients.

What is Cancer?

Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells that has the ability to invade into surrounding organs as well as spread to distant sites.

How does Colorectal Cancer Form?

Colorectal cancer originates from the inner lining or mucosa of the colon and rectum. The lining of the colon is continuously growing and shedding. As such, the lining or mucosa is undergoing cell replication all the times. With each replication, there is always a chance of a mutation. Although most mutations are recognised as an error by the body and the mutant cell is removed, sometimes these mutant cells escape the body's defence mechanism and continue to grow. As they grow, more mutation may occur and after a sequence of 4 or 5 mutations in the cell, they may turn cancerous.

Most of the colon cancer follows the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. What this means is that the colon wall first mutates into adenoma (a non-cancerous form) and over time with more mutation, changes into carcinoma (cancer).

The adenoma is usually in the form of a polyp which is a fleshy protuberance from the colon wall. Larger polyps may appear to have a stalk due to the weight of the polyp pulling on the colon lining.

With time, the adenoma type tissue in the polyp will turn cancerous. It then invades back into the polyp and up the stalk (if there is one) and eventually into the wall of the colon.

Once the cancer has invaded into the wall, it can then spread to distant organs either via the blood stream or the lymphatic system.

To know more about colorectal cancer, contact Ho Kok Sun Colorectal today at 6737 2778. You can also schedule an appointment with our colon surgeon, Dr Ho Kok Sun, for enquiries regarding our colorectal cancer screening options.

Understanding the risk factors and preventive care available for colorectal cancer is key.
For further enquiries, please contact our clinic at 6737 2778.
Read on for More Information on Colorectal Cancer:
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Our Colorectal Cancer Surgeon
Dr Ho Kok Sun Colorectal white logo
Dr Ho Kok Sun
Colorectal & General Surgeon
MBBS (Singapore), M Med (Gen Surg) (Singapore), FRCSEd (Gen Surg), FAMS
Dr Ho Kok Sun has been committed to treating colorectal cancer in Singapore for over a decade. He was the past President of the ASEAN Society of Colorectal Surgeons and the Society of Colorectal Surgeons (Singapore), as well as a founding member of the Eurasian Colorectal Technologies Association. Dr Ho was actively involved in the training of medical students and residents, and has published widely in reputable journals and book chapters. He believes that treatment should always be personalised to the patient’s needs.

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Our care team will be here for you before, during, and after your procedure. We strive to provide the highest quality of surgical care to our patients in a caring, compassionate, and respectful manner to ensure your healthy recovery.
Ho Kok Sun Colorectal logo
Ho Kok Sun Colorectal Pte Ltd

Colorectal Surgeon

3 Mount Elizabeth,
Mount Elizabeth Medical Centre
#12-09, Singapore 228510

Fax: (+65) 6737 2389

Mon - Fri: 9am - 1pm, 2pm - 5pm
Sat: 9am - 1pm
Closed: Sunday, Public Holiday
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